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of officials entrusted wiiu ^v.^_ 
ties, about ratepayers who stand for election 
to the Guardians blind to every object but 
one, about the scorn of age for youth on a 
public body, and about the utter indifference 
of the mass of us to the Poor Law and all its 
works, these are to be expected, and yet not 
\ for that are they to be disregarded. Mr. 
INoordin can be acute enough to fix on the 
\ " enforced communism " as the most galling 
part of workhouse life, or to record that the 
defect of the average tramp is not laziness nor 
'worthlessness, but instability. It is a pity, 
though not a surprise, that the narrative of 
a denominational storm which broke about 
the author's head is allowed to fill the longest 
chapter in the book. Most of his fears of 
what the new Act might contain have been 
proved empty by now, wliile in respect of re- 
"^ - T „„, iT'-xjnitnls.and nro- 



for knocking out the unsuspecting aspirant. Orage is a linguistic 
imperialist, holding that anything written in the so-called Eng- 
lish language must be judged by English standards. This is a 
curious notion to find in a man like Orage, but it is there. At 
bottom every Englishman is a nationalistic patriot and most 
of them are imperialists. Orage talks too much about the com- 
mon and vulgar (like an Englishman!) on the one hand, and 
the noble on the other, that is, he is a snob in his thinking 
and has never analyzed these terms to discover that they are 
survivals from a feudalistic social situation and have a distinctly 
snobbish connotation when used today. 

Mr. Orage's reputation as a sage seems to rest on two 
pillars: first, his constant reference to Sanskrit writings, and, 
second, his devotion to "psychological exercises," whatever they 
may be. There is, it is alleged, an aura which hangs about him, 
and his mere presence plus the utterance of a few commonplace 
words is enough to change the course of one's life. By way of 




180 



HARPER'S MON': 



You wanted to make money. Even 
then, just out of school, you wanted to 
make money because you were afraid to 
be without it. That's been your trouble 
all your life. You've wanted security. 
You've wanted to feel safe against every 
chance in life. And, unfortunately, 
that's one thing nobody can get in this 
world — security. I found that out, 
years ago. I went after adventure be- 
cause it's the only thing life is sure to 
give you, and I wanted to get used to it, 

I maybe. Anyway, that's why I jumped 

I into the War. I knew I was afraid to 
die, and I wanted to get used to that. 
You've been timid and frightened and 

afraid of life, and that's what licked 

you." 

Martin had taken a gulp of whiskey. 

"Licked!'* he cried, in a voice that 

cracked. "I'll show you whether I'm 

licked or not." 

"Yes, licked." Larry wagged his 

head, sagely smiling and pitiful. "Life 

has licked you in every ^ 

You've no fri^^ 

take ^ o^ 



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PITKIN LISTS TRAITS 
OF T HE INTELL IGENT 

Curiosity, Imagination and Con- 1 

sistency Are Put Among 

Attributes of Intellect. 



HE DECRIES SOCIAL WHIRL 



Leaders of Thought and Affairs 

Shun Society for Own Activities, 

Columbia Professor Asserts. 



Ten of the "strongest general char- 
acteristics of a highly intelligent per- 
son" are listed by Walter B, Pitkin, 
professor of journalism at Columbia 
University and former American 
managing editor of the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica, in his book, "The 
Psychology of Achievement," pub- 
lished today by Simon & Schuster. 

The characteristics which Professor 
Pitkin notes are: 

Lively curiosity toward many 
matters. 

A desire to investigate some of 
these matters for one's self. 

Strong trend to analyze whatever 
one thinks about and, as a result, 
to perceive the factors of the mat- 
ter in their interrelations. 

Fairly active imagination, at 
least in some subjects. 

Unusually ev»en performance over 
long periods; little tendency to de- 
viate much from one's usual level 
of skill. 

Clear understanding of one's 
chief desires and aspirations; 
hence concentration on dominant 
interest. 

Memory somewhat better than 
average and decidedly selective. 

Patience with details, based on a 
grasp of their importance. 

Interest in reflection and obser- 
vation much stronger than interest 
in handling things or managing 
people. 

Distinctly modest self-appraisal, 
often even to the point of belittling 
one's self. 

Despite the widespread belief that 
social interests aid a man's career. 
Professor Pitkin finds in his analysis 
that "lack of social interests aids 
the man who would achieve. In 
some lines, to be sure," he says, 
"the aim itself requires intense so- 
cial activity. Imagine a bond sales- 
man who shunned dances, dinners, 
wild parties, and week ends! Imag- 



! me a rising young politician who dis- 
liked after-dinner speeches, orations, 
caucauses, and committee meetings 
to the point of dodging them! 

"I am not arguing that nobody 
who plays the social game can suc- 
ceed. Thousands have. But they 
have thereby added to their burden. 
Their triumph is by that much the 
greater, of course; yet we must won- 
der how much more brilliant it 
would have been if they had run 
their course unhampered. We raise 
the query all the more keenly as we 
observe the weakly social trends of 
men who have risen to the top in 
American finance and industry. 

"It is no secret that such men as 
the elder J. P. Morgan, George F. 
Baker, the senior Rockefeller, Henry 
Ford, and many others one degree 
less eminent, such as Insull, Doheny, | 
Hearst, and Mellon have never been 



noted as social butterflies. They 
have not haunted Park Avenue teas. 
They have not won prizes at mas- 
querade balls. They never show up 
at the weekly luncheons of the Ro- 
tary Club. And they have rarely 
earned a page in Vanity Fair for 
the renown of their week-end par- 
ties." *^ 




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Superintendent of InKurajice. , 

Key to Culture of 
Mountaineer Folk 



John Powell, Pianist, Finds 
Their Music RevealsRacial 
Traditions oi^^iKindness 




MARION. Va., Sept/28)^ UP). —Those 
persons who have worrtPa over the lacls; 
of cultural education among Southerni 
mountaineers have failed wholly to j 
recognize the fact that those sam^ 
mountain whites have provided a dis* 
tinct and valuable part of the nation's 
folk song, John Powell/ Internationally^ 
known pianist, taeWeves. 

"The so-called smart set has been 
wasting Its pity and eneilgy." said 
Powell, whose home is in Richmond, 
while on a visit here. "The uncouth, 
mountain man is more cultured than 
his water-logged sympathizers. Preser- 
vation of his folk songs, corrupted aa 
little as may be by outside Influences, 
is one of this generation's importani; 
duties." 

While here, Powell spent some tlms 
copying words and music of many 
tunes played for him by mountain 
musicians. He remarked a superiority 
of mountain culture while expressing 
enthusiasm for the naive songs. 

"To vuiderstand exactly my mean-, 
ing, it is necessary to revise the average! 
man's conception of cultiu-e," Powelll 
explained. "To most people culture! 
means a sort of veneer, acquired byl 
laborious conning of books, which hides 
a man's native crudities. Millions be- 
lieve a cultured man _ is one who puts 
on airs and tries to think he's better 
than any one else. 

"Instead, culture, in its true sense, 
is a mingling of the racial traditions 
and the racial consciousness of a peo- 
ple, handed down for tliousands of 
years, permeating the consciousness of 
the individual, while at the same timo 
it remains an entity — a whole. 

"Behind what appears at first a stiff, 
) standoflfish attitude, these mountaiii 
1^ folk hide kindness and grace. 
I "Mountain music is the nearest ap- 
proacla to folk music America has. If 
it be objected that it is not indigenous 
to America, I have only to say ' that 
neither are any of the white races in- 
habiting this continent. We must pre- 
serve this music before it is too late." 

Powell believes the mountain people 
are better off if ignored by the atten- 
tions of "uplifting" outsiders. 

"The other night," he said, "I ad- 
dressed a music club: the members 
were people of good standing who had 
pxnvpssed the wish to help the 'poor 



t whitesT Suddenly I asked for a deflnl- 
I tion of the Dorian mod^. Only one or 
two members could define that musi- 
cal term, whereupon I told them that I 
could go into the mountains and find 
plenty of people who also could not 
define the Dorian mode, but could sing 
beutifully in it — which the club mem- 
bers could not. That. I said, was only 
more evidence that the 'hill-billy' Is 
intrinsically more cultured than his 
pitying well wishers." 



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A GALLERY OF FAMOUS MEN IN THE STUDIO OF AN 

AMERICAN SCULPTOR: JO DAVIDSON'S MODELS 

for His Portrait Busts of the Late Myron T. Herrick, John D. 

Rockefeller, Premier Mussolini and Andrew Furuseth on a 

Shelf in His Studio in Paris. 

(Times Wi le World Photos, Paris Bureau.) 



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Avoid Work by Talk? 
Most Do, Mosley Says 

Bi' THE Associated Pbess 

London 

THE ingenuity which human 
intelligence is accustomed to 
devote to devising ways and means 
of avoiding work and putting talk 
in its place is humorously com- 
mented upon by Sir Oswald Mosley, 
member of a young and active 
group in the British Parliament. 

"I spend most of my life," he 

said at a British advertisers society 

dinrier, "among people who talk 

about things rather than do them. 

jilt is Avonderful, the ingenuity of ths,. 

Ihuman mind for finding reasons to 

{postpone or delay action. It is the 

Imost powerful factor in modem 

^politics." 




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PRINTING OF TEXTILES. By Reco Capey. 
HiXof, X.+ J38 i)p. Chapman and Hall. 
Us. bd. 11. 

Mr. Capey has produced a remaikablv com-is^^ and 
comprehensive text-book upon the Very various 
metiiods of printing and Onishing Uixtiles. TJiou<di 
he expre.sses hirf belief that hand-block print ing'is 
the only method in wljich artistic salvation lies 
he is quite as alive to the advantages of tlie 
machines as t.o their disadvantages, lie Jias ob- 
viou..ly studied hand-block printing very thoroughly 
and gives det,ailed de.scriptions of the methods that 
he has louiid mo.st useful in his own expeiience 
Phis aJone should make tJie book vahiable, but witli 
the added descriptions of the machines and of what 
rnay be called (lie industrial processes its usefulness 
IS much increased. The •" Perrotine," the cvlinder 
machme and tlie methods of engraving fromVo per 
plates are all fully described with admirable \fil- 
grain.s, while there are also chapters upon dvcMu- 
and the i,reparation and finishing of the cloth; and 
a most, mf-rest ,ng cha]>ter upon " batik " a.s prac- 
tised ui . ava J ho ],ook is well iUustrated with half- 
tnne plaU's oi cottons and silks, some being fine old 
examples and others the work of the ivifh..^ 
\ i\r wi^ • ' — 



7>p, 



150 pp. 



DRIFTING MEN. By R. M. Fox. 

Hogarth Press. 6s. n. 
It is a wild, fantastic world, a world where all 
accepted standards have turned topsy-turvey, that 
Mr. Fox evokes in his book. To those who had 
imagined that men were usually homeless and 
penniless through misfortime, for instance, it comes 
as something of a shock to read of Jack Smith, who 
tramped because he wanted to and made it a point 
of honour to spend every penny on a riotous even- 
ing with his friends before he set out on the road. 
Jack was an excellent worker, and once his fore- 
man, anxious to keep him, asked if the money or 
the job were not good enough. " It's too good," 
groaned Jack, " three meals a day and a bed every 
night. I can't stand it ! " Equally surprising, too, 
are sketches of tramps who can quote from the 
world's literature's, who come back from the road 
because a Wagner . season is opening in London ; 
indeed, the book is packed with sidelights on un- 
expected aspects of life, as, for instance, the 
sympathy of the vagabonds for an American dope 
fiend because, i)oor fellow, in addition to having 
to pick up enough for food and lodging each day, 
as they did, he must lind two shillings extra for 
liis drug. 

Throughout the book is an Invincible determina- 
tion on the part of the drifting men to be ruled 
by no law ; they run every risk, but risks mean 
nothing to men who are indifferent to conse- 
quences ; hunger, feasting, freedom, imprisonment 
are all in the day's work. If the drifter makes any 
demand on life it is difficult to see what it is, and 
Mr. Fox makes no attenipt to tell us ; he is con- 
tent to present vividly his various types, each of 
whom is clear cut as a cameo ; perhaps he knows 
that the vagrant has no philosophy, makes no de- 
mand. The most interesting pages of the book are 
those dealing with prison life, especially as lived 
by conscientious objectors during the War ; it 
was perhaps inevitable then that these jnen should 
be treated with great brutality, and the courage 
with which they endured, the intelligent pertinacity 
with which they fought for the logical acceptance 
of their position make saddening reading. 
TOWARD CIVILIZATION. Edited bv Pwat^t^^ 




A Foreigner Looks at the British Sudan. By 
Odette Keun. 7|Xoi, 56 pp. (Criterion Mis- 
cellany.) Faber and Faber. Is. n. 
This author must by now have something like a 
dozen books to her credit, some in French and 
some in English, and the present booklet reproduces 
not a few of the characteristics of its predecessors. 
There is the same cleverness, the same hard, 
brilliant style, the same masterly descriptive 
touches, the same occasional deliberate rousing of 
the feeling of disgust, and the same restriction of 
outlook which is perhaps the inevitable fault that 
goes with the virtue of minute and significant 
observation. The wise reader will enjoy the series 
of cameos of the Sudan, which may surprise many 
by the insight which they give into the infinite 
variety of that great country; and will note with 
gratified surprise the tributes to our administration 
in the Sudan here accorded by a pen which in the 
past has been more critical than appreciative of 
British administration in backward countries; but 
will not take too seriously a mere traveller's 
views on native education. Peace, security, jus- 
tice, food, medicine, encouragement of good agri- 
culture, precautionary famine reserves — these are 
the cardinal aims of prudent policy in backvyfird 
l and^ , not the multiplication of schools. But he 
or she who desires the intimacies of a realistic 
verbal film of the Sudan will find them here. 



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that adds materially to the value ot tiie 
collection . 

Our New Ways of Thinking 

Our New Ways of Thinkingr. By George Boas, 
Professor of Philosophy at Johns Hopkina Uni- 
versity. $2.50, New York: Harper and 
Brothers. 

AS there Is nothing static in the uni- 
L\ verse, from the tiny electron to the 
*■ *• mightiest star cluster, least of all 
can the ways of thought be regarded as 
stereotyped. But there has always been 
a tend0ncy to treat them as unchanging 
so far as fundamental elements are con- 
cerned, and it is this conventional atti- 
tude towards thinking which, with the 
aid of n;iany pertinent illustrations, which 
Professor Boas disposes of so effectively 
in his book. The survey there ofitered 
presents all sorts of phange^, from the 
days of Aristotle to those of Einstein, the 
author also pointing out that even in the 
modern period it is the human being's 
thinking rather than his doing, rather 
than his enjoyment of the physical things 
made possible by science, which so 
sharply distinguishes the man of today 
from his forefathers. 

"In broadest terms," the author says, 
"our modern thought differs in three re- 
spects from the thinking of the past. One 
can state them technically as, first — the 
substitutiofi of statistics for Aristotelian 
logic, which may loosely be called a shift 
from absolute, final 'truth,' to changing 
and growing 'probability.' Second — the 
substitution of the notion that change 
is growth for the notion that it is me- 
chanical impact. Third — the substitution 
of what may be called the 'will* for the 
'reason' as the source of human acts," 
Statistics, he points out, have altered our 
knowledge of "things" and lowered our 
respect for arbitrary definitions. Science 
has meanwhile come to be "biologized." 
The emphasis has been placed on growth 
in the sciences dealing with life, awd 
there is reason to believe that this em- 
phasis will be applied to the physical 
sciences as well. We have built up our 
world, it is claimed, as we want to have 
it; voluntarism is said to slip in when 
logic fails, and we overcome the mystery 
of nature by an act of will. And the 
thesis of Professor Boas culminates in a 
showing of the illogicality of change, of 
the rise of anti-rational and anti-intel- 
lectual philosophies, of how anti-intel- 
lectual systems lead to a new outlook, of 
the ways in which the theories of Ein- 
stein illustrate the "operational" methods 
of voluntarism, and of how this new 
i approach is becoming a dominant atti- 
I tude of thought. Yet the outlook, de- 
I pressing as it might seem, is not at al) 
■ discouraging — rather the opposite. 





The ilLaws of Feeling 

The Laws of Feeling. By P. Paulhan of the 
Academy of the Moral and Political Sciences 
and of the French Sc^lety of PsycholoRrj'. Trans- 
lated by C. K. Ogden, Magdalen College. Cam- 
hri'ice. $3,75. A volume in the International 
Library of Psychology and Scientific Method. 
New York: Harcourt. Brace & Company. 

IN this book Dr. Paulhan presents 
many valuable results of that long 
study of the subtler forms of Ijuman 
emotion which has enabled him to de- 
scribe feeling as the outcome of an arrest 
of tendencies and an imperfection of the 
personality itself. When affective phe- 
nolnena appear, he points out, they are 
the sign bf a violent disturbance of the 
organism, "an imperfect functioning of 
the machine," For they appear when 
the systematic reaction of the organism 
is impeded, when nervous energy, liber- 
ated by an external or internal excitation, 
can.not be turned to a useful purpose, 
when neither harmony of internal 
tendencies nor harmony of actidn can be 
obtained, every passion, every emotion, 
every feeling being then the sign of a.n 
imperfection in the organism. 

After skilfully working out this thesis, 
with a showing of all its implications, 
the author goes on to criticize some of 
the findings of modern psychology, es- 
pecially in relation to hitelligence, feelijig 
and will, all of which, he maintains, -^a-r^, 
"different faces of a single fact, or merely 
what one sees when rejgrardlng it in dif: 
ferent ways." Irt his opinion, every im- 
pression, every feeling, every affective 
fact, is in itself a sort of knowledge, a 
synthetic representation of varying exact- 
itude, and therefore t^ndini: to facilitate 
actions and direct the ;wilL "It la that^ 
too, but jiot that alone. On closer ob- 
servation we shall perceive very often 
th9,t our representation of reality is not 
made up of clear ideas, of well formu- 
iated a: vi precisely stated propositions, 
but rather of affective impressions, slight 
ejnotions, and feelings well defined or 
bkrely perceptible, but nevertheless ef- 
fective. ... In other words, our internal 
representation of the world, if faithfully 
reproduced, would comprise more inter- 
jections than regularly constructed 
phrases." Thus aft'ective knowledge is 
held to be Infinitely more widespread 
than is commonly believed, to be mingled 
with the whole of our life, and to be al- 
ways of value whether it be reducible 
or not to intellectual formulae. At the 
same time it is more fallacious and less 
truly instructive than reasoned and more 
obviously intellectual knowledge: it can 
distort reality or so disregard it as to 
leave man powerless or drive him into 
dangerous errors and regrettable actions. 
Hence "we must not place a blind trust 
in affective Knowledge," but "must know 
how to rectify It, contradict it, and re- 
main sceptical before it," ^11 the time 
realizing that we cannot do without it. 
And we are finally told of the value 
there may be in considering the sensi- 
bility, intelligence and will of the indi- 
vidual as a whole, and not in single 
elements. 



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\ 



DAY OF MATERIALISM 



Science May Construct Robots, 

Astronomer Holds, but Test 

of Spirit Will Remain. 



SUGGESTS ORIGIN OF MAN 



Sir Arthur Asserts Creation May 

Have Been "Just a Hitch" in the 

Machinery of Universe. 



BUT HOLDS AN OPEN MIND 



British Scientist In International 

Radio Talk Says Search for Truth 

Is Symbol of Man. 



Special Cable to The Nrw York Timbs. 
LONDON, Nov. 23.— Are we hu- 
mans, after all, a bit star gone 
wrong? Is our world just an acci- 
dent in nature's normal schem.e of 
fiery globes, an epic of milliai|ds of 
years, which never calculated on the 
formation of sm.all, cool globes fit 
for habitation? And are we to be 
faced one day with a living and 
breathing robot fashioned by scien- 
tists? 

Professor Sir Arthur Eddington set 
half the globe to debating the.se 
points tonight following a radio talk 
today on science and religion. The 
earth, he said, is only the fifth or 
sixth largest planet, belonging to an 
inconspicuous grade star in one of 
the numerous islands of an archi- 
pelago of island universes. 

Sir Arthur has no doubt thai thpie 
are other globes whirh are or have 
been tenanted by beings like o\ir- 
selves. but the great aatrnnomer said 
he thought such globes were uncom- 
mon and that as for man it was pos- 
sible he was the result of "just a 
trifling hitch" In the m.achinery. 



which normally collected m.atter in 
big lumps at terrifically high tem- 
perature. 

Defines Aim of Science. 

"It may be possibly going too far," 
he remarked, "to say our bodies are 
pieces of stellar matter which by a 
contingency not sufficiently guarded 
against have taken advantage of the 
low temperature to assume an un- 
usual complication and to perform a 
series of strange antics which we 
call life. 

"But I do not combat this view 
even if I doubt its tenability. I keep ! 
an open mind and am unwilling to j 
base philosophy or religion on the 
assumpeitno that it must necessarily 
break down. 

"Science is an attempt to set in 
order the facts of eirperiencp. It ha.'? 
met with wonderful success ?,nd the 
picture M'hich it draws of the physi- ! 
cal universe is its a.nswer to the prob- i 
lem. ! 

"What is the truth about ourselves? j 
We may incline to various answers, j 
We are a bit of star gone wrong, i 
We arp a complicated physical ma- \ 
chinery— puppets that strut and talk [ 
and laught and die as ibe hand of 
time turns the handle bpneath. But | 
let us remember that there is one ' 
elementary and inescapable answer. 
We are that which asked the ques- 
tion. 

"Responsibility toward truth Is an 
attribute of our nature. It was 
through our spiritual nature of 
which responsibility for truth is a 
typical manifestation that we first 
came into the world of experience. 
Our entry via the physical universe 
is a re-entry. 

"The strange association of soul 
and body, of responsibility for truth 
with a bit of stellar matter that got 
cold by accident, is a problem in 
which we cannot but feel intense 
intere.st, but not an anxious^ inter- 
est a.s tlioiit'Ji the ex\f,U/nce and sig- 
nificance of the spiritual side of ex- 
perience were hanging in. the baU- 
ance. 

"The solution must fit the data. 
We cannot alter the data to fit the 
alleged solution." 

It is insufficiently recognized. Sir 
Arthur said, that modern theoretical 
physics 1« very much t;oucerned with 
the study of org.inii^ation, and from 
organization to organism does not 
.•leein to liiai an iiupo.sflihle stride. 

"It might hap.oen some day," he 
said, "that science will be able to 
show how from the entitip.<? of phys- j 
ics creatures may be formed which 
are counterparts of our.«ielves, even 
to the point of being endowed w^ith 
life. The scientist will perhaps point 
o\it the nervous mechanism of this i 
creature, its powers of motion. gT(f^h j 
and reproduction, and end by saying, 
'That Is ynu.' 

S«t« Vp "Ine«<»ApahIe Twrt.'* 

"But, remember, the inescapable 



te»t is : Is it concerned with truth j 
as I am. Then I will acknowledge 
that it is indeed myself. ' 

"We demand something more even 
than consciousness. The scientist 
may point to motions in the brain 
and say that these really mean sen- 
sations, emotions, thoughts and per- 
haps supply a code to translate the 
motions into corresponding thoughts. 
Even if we accept this rather inade- 
quate substitute for consciousness, 
as we intimately know It, we must 
still protest: 

"You have shown us a creature 
which thinks and believes; you have 
not shown us a creature to whom it 
matters in any non-utilitarian sense) 
what it thinks and believes.' 

"The inmost ego, possessing what 
I call the inescapable attribute, can 
never be part of the physical world 
unless we alter the meaning of the 
word physical to spiritual, a change 
hardly to the advantage of clear 
thinking. But having diSoimed our , 
supposed double we could say to the ' 
scientist: ! 

" 'If you will hand over thi« robot 
who pretends to be me and let it 
be filled with th^ attribute at present 
lacking and perhaps ottier spiritual i 
attributes which I claim on similar ' 
thought and less indisputable grounds. ' 
we may arrive at something that is i 
mdeed myself.' " | 

Recent revolutionary changes of 
science, Sir Arthur added, had made 
this kind of cooperative solution of 
the problem of experience more prac- 
ticable than it used to be. A few 
years ago the suggestion of taking 
a physically constructed man and 
adapting him to a spiritual nature by 
casually adding something would 
have been mere verbal gliding over 
jmsuperable difficulties, he said. 
t In much the same wav. he said 
scientist.^ talked looselv of building 
a robot and then breathing life into 
him. The robot was presumably no*^ 
constructed to bear such laa^-m'i^u^" 
changes of design. He was a delicate 
piece of mechanism designed to work 



THE MYSTERIOUS UNIVERSE 



The Universe Around .Us. By Sir James 
Jeans. Second edition, revised and en- 
larged. (Cambridge University Press. 
12s. 6d. net.) 
The Mysterious Universe, By Sir James 
Jeans. (Cambridge University Press. 
3s. 6d. net.) 
Tlii^ee important additions within the course 
of a year to Sir James Jeans's justifiably 
popular book, '' The Universe Around Us," 
indicate the rate at which scientific progress 
is being made. These additions are not new 
patches to an old garment, but are woven into 
the texture of the work, which is in every way 
brought up to date. 

The first of these additions, that dealing 
with the new planet Pluto, marks a personal 
triumph for Sir James Jeans, as Pluto con- 
firms from observation liis theoretical deduc- 
tion in 1916 that the sun's planetary system 
had been thrown off as a cigar -shaped 
projection when a passing star raised huge 
tides in our sun. It is welcome that in 
these days of astrophysics observational 
astronomy should still be far from exhausted. 
The rotation of the galactic system of stars 
of which our sun is a member provides 
material for further discussion. It might have 
been thought, as soon as it was realized that 
the galaxy is shaped like a disk, that its parts 
would have to be in relative rotation in order 
to prevent the outermost suns rushing in to 
the centre under gravitational influence. 
Poincare suggested in 1913 that this might be 
so, but it is only very recently that observa- 
tion has detected the rotation. It is now 
proved that the sun has a galactic motion of 
about 200 miles a second, moving faster than 
the outermost but slower than the central 
stars of the system. The third addition to the 
book deals with the alleged expansion of the 
universe. It is well known that on the General 
Theory of Relativity were built two different 
cosmologies, those of Einstein and de Sitter. 
They were thought to be rival systems, but 
Eddington pointed out that they were really 
limits, Einstein contemplating a universe with 
as much matter as it could hold, de Sitter a 
universe with no matter at all; the actual 
universe might be intermediate between these 
limits according to how much matter existed. 
Sir James Jeans now endorses this suggestion 
as a result of calculations by the Abbe 
Lemaitre that Einstein's universe is necessarily 
unstable. It must fexpand in its dimensions 
until it approaches a de Sitter universe, and 
must then continue to expand because de 
Sitter's universe possesses a tendency to 
scatter. 

A difficulty at once arises. If the universe, 
which is all that there is, expands, into what 



can It expand ? It is the old skeleton which 
lurks m so many philosophic cupboards, what 
lies beyond the confines of space and time ? 
Difficultiiss over space and time led Kant to 
inaugurate modern Idealism, and it is probably 
similar difficulties, though this is not stated, 
which have led Sir James Jeans, in contrast 
with most scientific workers, to make over- 
tures to Idealism. He suggested at the end of 
" The Universe Around Us " that, as it is no 
use going to the edge of the picture to find 
the artist, so it is no use going to the ends of 
space and time to find God, and this tentative 
approach to idealism becomes a whole-hearted 
advocacy in " The Mysterious Universe." The 
universe which used to be around us has now 
become within us. If space and time are 
merely forms imposed on phenomena by the 
mind, then no difficulty arises over their 
extent. They have no more substantial 
existence than the meridians of longitude. 
Sir James Jeans follows Einstein in regarding 
space as finite (more precisely, the universe is 
closed in all its space dimensions). He takes 
a novel fine, however, in asserting that time 
had a beginning a finite number of years ago, 
though it may have no end. There would be I 
a blatant self-contradiction in a Realist postu- , 
lating a first moment of time, but all things ' 
. seem possible for Idealism, which has a very 
Short Way with Dissenters. Sir James Jeans 
is led to do so by the importance which he 
attaches to the Second Law of Thermo- 
dynamics, with its attendant conception of a 
universe running down from an energetic 
beginning to a "heat death." He does not 
believe that anywhere in space matter is 
being re-created out- of radiation, nor does 
he see any value in the notion of cychcal 
universes, which would make time finite. 

Apart from the usual difficulties incidental 
to Idealism in general, certain others are raised 
by Sir James Jeans's own form of it. The 
only type of thought of which we have 
cognizance is that of the higher animals, and 
yet; on Sir James Jeans's own splendid show- ] 
ing, they occupy a wholly insignificant place 
in the universe of which they are partly 
creators. Most of us, could we have created a 
world by hard thinking, would have moulded 
it nearer to our heart's desire and allowed i 
just a little touch of vanity to creep in. Then 
there is Sir James Jeans's view that the archi- 
tect of the universe must now be thought of, 
not as a biologist or an engineer, but primarily 
as a pure mathematician. It is true that the 
concepts of pure mathematics have been far 
more successful than the concepts of biology 
or mechanics in interpreting the universe, but 
is not that a result of the nature of mathe- 
matics rather than of the universe? If God 
is best conceived, as Christians have asserted, 
under the guise of a loving Father, then it is 
to be expected that the application of this 
concept to nature would be an obscure busi- 
ness, for it is precisely the nature of a Father's 
love that it exists amid difficulties and when 
least expected. But the case is different with 



mathematics, whose ideal is clarity rather 
than richness. If there had been difficulties 
in applying the tensor calculus to the world 
it could only have been because tensors were 
unfitted for describing the world. Un- 
doubtedly the Cleat or of the world must be 
conceived, among other things, as a pure 
mathematician, but mathematical prowess 
must not be thought to exhaust the divine 

attributes. That were indeed a sorry lapse 
into the standards of big business. 

These two works of Sir James Jeans may 
be regarded as among the most succinct and 
lucid accounts of the universe and of man's 
methods in investigating it that have yet 
been written. It would be difficult to get 
more real thought packed into such small j 
compass as that of *' The Mysterious 
Universe." 



THE SICK CONSCIENCE 




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Civilization and its Discontents. By Sigmund Freud. Authorized 
Translation by Joan Riviere. (Hogarth Press, and the 
Institute of Psychoanalysis. 8s. 6d.) 

" The command to love our neighbours as ourselves is 
the strongest defence there is against human aggressiveness, 
■and it is a superlative example of the unpsychological atti- 
tude of the cultural super-ego. The command is impossible 
to fulfil ; such an enormous inflation of love can only lower 
its value and not remedy the evil. Civilization pays no heed 
to all this ; it merely prates that the harder It is the more 
laudable the obedience. The fact remains that anyone who 
follows such teaching in the present .state of civilization 
only puts himself at .a disadvantage beside those who set 
it at naught. What an overwhelming obstacle to civilization 
aggression must be if the defence against it can cause as 
much misery as aggression itself ! Natural ^ethics, as it is 
called, has nothing to offer here beyond the narcissistic 
satisfaction of thinking oneself better than others. . . ." 

] It is possible — is it not? — to detect a note of masochism, of 
i suffering feared and sought, underlying Dr. Freud's presen- 
•■ tation of the dilemma in which the possession of a conscience 
/or, in more precise psychological language, super-ego) 
places us. This masochism, as he shows, is aggravated by 
the very intensity of our aggressive feelings, thwarted from 
reasons of conscience ; for our innate disposition to aggres- 
sion implies an instinctual death-wish— towards others— un- 
less it is inhibited, and so turned against ourselves, the 
instinct avenging its privation upon the abstainer 'in a -S 
heightened sense of guilt. ^ 

Freud is proba;bly wise to take quite literally the strictest 
injunctions of doctrinaire Christianity against aggression 
and show the maladjustments caused by their observance. 
Of course, many have evaded the conflict by evolving a com- 
promise between these extremes, dissimulating self-assertion 
by an assumption of abnegation, with an eye to social 
approval. The fact that we owe th?s whole technique of 
modern manners to feminine tutelage might indeed be urged 
in mitigation of the shortcomings, which Freud instances, of 



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for that matter, the dread of public opinion that seems solely 
to condition the conduct of many nominally adult citizens 
clearly shows no real maturity of character. But to act 
not only as defendant, but also as prosecutor and judge of 
one's own actions is to incur the liability to internal con- 
flicts, and indeed the concept of growth to full responsibility 
for the burden of civilization is an essential factor in all 
Freudian analysis. 

The combative strain is unmistakable in Freud's own 
character, and the element of sacrifice which the renuncia- 
tion of such gratification calls for is implicit to a certain 
extent in his own methods of practice, since the very recourse 
to psycho-analysis shows that the patient admits personal 
responsibility rather than the general wickedness of the rest 
of the world to be the starting point in diagnosis. But 
Freud is clearly insistent that for future generations, not 
yet marred by this inculcation of aggravated renunciation, 
such emotional conflicts are too high a price to pay: — 

" That the upbringing of young people at the present 
day conceals from them the part sexuality will play in their 
lives is not the only reproach we are obliged to bring against 
it. It offends, too, In not preparing them for the aggressions 
of which they are destined to become the objects. . . . One 
can clearly see that ethical standards are being mis.ised in 
a way. The strictness of these standards would not kIo so 
much harm if education were to say : ' This is how men 
ought to be in order to be happy and make others happy, 
but you have to reckon with their not being so.' Instead of 
this the young are made to believe that everyone else con- 
forms to the standard of ethics, i.e., that everyone else is 
good. And then on this is based the 'demand that the young 
shairbe so too." 

Bernard Causton. 



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RES}ST.\]SCE 



Tlii Psycholor/ aiid strategy' of 
Gandhi's Nbn-V^iolent Resisiance. 
By rachard . B. Gria^-, Ganesan 
Madras Fart I iS2&. Pare II 1930. 

The tiUe ot this- book is a mis- 
nomer. As th0 author is concerned 
witji an., elucidation, from many 
an^es, of non- violent resistance, 
]x>th tlieoretical and practical, and 
2s,a very small ar^d. . insignificant 
part- of Uie book deals with the 
views or practice ol' Mahatina Gan- 
' dhl, the book should have been 
' named rnei-^Iy '-'The Psychology and 
strategy of Non-Violent Resist- 
* ance. Tlie author himself says 
(Part n Chapter X), ''Ti\q argu- 
ment of this book is not based on 
the authority or any one or two 
men" . . . and ^^i>.^n we add to 
it the fact that it is neither an 
explanation nor a criticism of any^ 
one man's therory or practice of 
non-\'loi€nce, it \^in at once be 
%^^\\ that ,the title is misleading. 
The m^re fact of Mjahatmaji's be- 
ing the^ greatest' modem e^xponent 
and champion of non-violence is 
no justification for nsing his name 
in the title of a book which does 
not make his the9ry and, practice- 
of it the argument or subject mat- 
ter of the book:.. 

On the whole, a valuable book. 
It lifers greatiy. however, i>y a 
general d iff useness and prolixity; 
an uncoiisciou2 desire to say the 
last word on the subject; and fre- 
quent ov^r-etatements which spoil 
the efirect of an otherwise go-^d 
'.presentation of the case he sets out 
to argue. Moreover he frequently 



i 



raises against himself the suspi- 
cion that he has not digested th-^ 



books that he has read up on vari- 
ous aspects of his thesis, and makes 
one almost wish that he had res- 
tricted th3 wider range of that read- 
ing in favour of a more concentrat- 
ed attention on a somewhat ies.sev 
bulk of material. Instances of spe- 
cial pleading too. are by no means 
rare, and of these the passage 'Part 
H P. 234 omvai'ds) in which he 
analyses uie situation of i\. non- 
violent guardian of a girl, the girl 
herself, and a Pathan who attacks 
her \rith eni motive, ought to be-^ 
come the ' classic instance of a 
manifestation of the! wlll-t:;-stlf - 
deception in upholding one's pet 
theory. 

\ Apart from all this, it is a uooK 
winch can be recommended to any 
oiie interested in the subjecG of 
non-violent resistance. It ou^ht 
to give food for thought to im- 
peilal'ists . and militarists though 
it can hai-dly be expected to con- 
vince the unconnnced. It is a 
eareful, if a none too brilliant, ex- 
position of the theme tlrat non- 
violent resistancei \z a moral and 
peycholcglcj.a eQul\-aIent of war 
when practised by groups of dis- 
cipained men, and th.e best way of 
solnng confiicts between individual 
and individual. It is, of co-urse. 
much -rnci^ difficult to make out a 
.t:ase for the success of non-violence 
in private life by sepaxate ijidivi- 
duais but the autlior need not have 
been so uiTcConvtncln^ as he very 
trequently is in passages like the 
one quoted :beI<yA': "If A attacks 
B v,lth physical violence and B 
reacts al^ In like mamier. the 
attacker A. "bocause of the manner 
of B*s response'"' Immediately feels 
his anger and ili-wiil towards B are 
-fully justified.'* B. by his ill-tem- 
jjered violence, lias '^proved that 
he is an evil feiiow ( ! )" and siiouici 
be piuiished and rendered le«s able 
to harm tytherB as well as A.'* )f 




~ 7 



this is not sheer nonsense it is 
sometliing verj* n€sar to it, the at- 
tacker A \vt>aLd be very much sur- 
prised indeed. If tfee ^'mariner of 
B^'s respoiLse" 'w^ere otlierwise, B's 
response cariii,ot .^eem otherwise,: 
than natural, to A iH3,iess A know^^i 
tbefor^'haiid' that A is a cowaixi or a' 
^aint:» and has toaaked upon, \h&\ 
lact in niaMng. his attacfe. 'Now 
tooth A and B aare ordinairy men in. 
M^ iiiAt^nce. and V^ ^ay t^j^i ,^ 

•'because of B's r^isponse" think iiim-' 
selt Justified in using voileneej 
a^^alnst liim is simpis' linintteUigl- 1 
ble sophistry. If A thinks shnselt 
jastified in using voilencc, his 
grounds for doing so, remain after 
the attack, the- same as they did 
before he attacked. Not content 
v.lth this the author immediately 
proceeds w say: "B, by his ill- 
tempered violence, has proved that 
he is an evil fellow (to A the at- 
tacker!!) and should be punished 
and rendered less able to harm 
others as vvell as A." This mar- 
vellous championing of the cause 
of Truth and Non- Violence, is not 
a solitary Instance unfortunately.; 
Passages like this are to be found 
for the asking all over the book. 
He puts himself on much firmer 
gTomid when he deals with non- 
violence as practised by groups of 
men as a refined ea.uivaient; of war 
—an equivalent which Is both psj'-- 
chologlcal and moral. He has dealt 



with this aspect of 



thoroughly I 



and sanely, a few instances willl 
suffice to show that tc> us, Indians, 
who are deeply concerned with thei 
present non-violent figh^,, this book; 
is full of suggestion. 

"We may say that in an en- 
counter against non-violent resis-! 
ters, the violent attackers get fur- 
ther and further away from their 
moral base, their self-respect 
(founded on truth) and the respect 
of others for them: and the non- 
violent i!^3sisters come closer and 
closer to the ultimate truth about ; 
themseh'^es and their own cause, 
which is, so to say, the heart of , 
their comitry." 

"In cases where Asiatics have | 
tried to re!teve themselves of the 
economic and military pressure of 
European domnnation, they have 
complained that the West cannot 



understand any language but that 
of force. If that Is true, it means 
that the West will be utterly un- 
prepared and helpless in the face 
ol well-disciplined thoraughly or- 
ganised and wisely led non-\iolent 
resistance, especially if it is accom- 
panied by one equally thorough 
economic boycott. » But I am 
inclined to think that the West 
vdll come to understand the new 
.language fairly soon, once it is 
shown to be strong languae.^. . 
The West is. in this respecs -' :J3D' ? • 
thing like a baby who begiiio "^'o 
understand what words mean fee- ! 
fore he can say any g£ '^hem him- 
self. And there can be no ctt;.^:ht 
that the West understands the 
language of economic boycott and 
decreasing profits reasonably well. 
No doubt the West is reluctant to 
alter its ways but that is a different 
matter." 

The author has acalt e.ihaustive- 
ly with the many misconceptions 
til at are prevalent abu\it non- vio- 
lent i-x^sisters, and non-violent re- 
sistance. Many of these do not 
trouble us Indians a ad are more 
prevalent in the Wf^st. What 
trouble most Indians, is.* I should 
imagine, the qiiestiou raised by 
the author "Wliat }nust be thei 
chai-acter of the non- violent lesis- 
ter 'in order that he.. may use his 
vvt-apon effective iy''? Let the au- 
thor himself supply the answer in 
Ins own \^'ord5. He must liave pi'i- 
marily that disposition b^^st known 
as love— an interest la *>eoplo so 
deep and detemxined and lasting, 
as to be creative: a profound know-j 
ledge of or faith in the ult4mat-Q;| 
possibilities of human natui'e a' 
courage based probabiy upon a con- 
scious or subh conscious idealization 
of the underlying unity of all life 
and eternal ^/Biues or eternal li^e 
of the human spirit; a strong and 
deep desii'e for and love of truth; 
and a humOity ?/hieh is not cring- 
ing, oi- self-deprecatory or timid 
but rattier a true sense of pr(^3or- 
tion ill regard to people, things. 
ouaMtil^s and ultimate v^ues." 
'This is a iorrnidar/ia list of quali- 
ties but 110 do'cbt esseiitiai If one 
is to gain, phe object for vmich- an 
ladlyiayal p(r'?u?tise« aon -violent 



resistance against another. If he 
left it at that there would be noth- 
ing- to say against the author hut 
he immediately goes on to an exhi- 
bition of revolting sophistry. ''These 
may sound very phllosophicai and 
rare" (quaUties), we ai'^e infoixned, 
"but in fact they are all quite com- 
mon, human traits— love, faith, 
courage, honesty, and humility. 
Tiiey exist in greater or lessor 
strength and clearness in every 
person." This is a glaring" attempt 
to side-track the rsal issue — which 
is not that these qualities are 
common, etc., but that a "combi- 
nation of all these in one man" is 
not to be iound except in such rara 
typ«es of humanity as Mahatma 
Gandhi, Jesus Christ, and Buddha. 
That most men refuse to commit 
themselves to a line of action which 
is based on the condition that they 
must think themselves possessed of 
such a combination of qualities is 
a refreshing reminder of human 
modesty. (My remark takes into 
account only such people who ai*e 
convinced that non-violence is not 
weakness.) 

Fortunately, the qualities needed 
for group non-violent resistance 
are, according to the author, not 
so exacting. Just as "an anny can 
be very effective without every sol- 
dier in it, or even a m^ajority of 
them, being individual paragons of 
intelligence o,nd military virtue" so 
also can a group of ordinary men if 
trained by proper leaders, be very 
efficient non-violent resiters if im- 
lened with a sense of discipline. 
"But non-violent resisters cannot 
lower the prestige of their oppon- 
ents or create dissensions among 
their opponents' supporters mitil 
they bi^ak through the censorship 
of governments, pi-ess associations, 
or disdain; that they cannot break 
through these censorships \mtil 
they have conducted thejnselves 
with high excellence. . . There- 
fore their chief efforts should be 
not in talking to reporters or ap- 
pealing for help from outside, but 
with themselves, to increase their 
own discipline ajid organisation. . . 
Tliey should strive for such de- 
tails even as clean bodies, clean 
clothes, cJ^ean houses, clean streets, 
clean talk. Mulitary discipline is 



"through and detailed like this." 
"Non-viole^nt discipline must ' be 
the same." This is something to 
which the various leaders of volun- 
teer-bands should give serious 
I thought. 

It would be imfair to close this 
somewhat realistic review without 
a tribute to the essential nobility 
of the author's mind, and his mani- 
fest desire that Ti'uth and Love 
should prevail in the affairs of the 
world. There are, in this book, 
many tributes to Lovfe and from 
these I shall quote one which seems 
to me most fortified, in the mode 
of its expression, from possible 
charged of sentimentalism and 
lyricism. 

"Loi'e has ti^mendous creative 
energy and power. It has been 
said that evei-y tnie vii-tue must be 
passionate that is must be brim- 
ming over with energy. The love 
in non-\iolent resistance has tJais 
positiv^e, creative, exuberaiit pas- 
sionate energy. Energy, as Wil- 
liam Blake said, is divine. It has 
our job to provide the insti'umenti?, 
methods and heans whereby it 
may be hariiessed to do the con- 
structive creature task of building 
a nobler and more joyful world for 
; mankind. It must pervade overj 
detail and aspect of life," 

This come3 straight from .the 
' heart, and is. inspite of \iob' and 
I '^whereby', inspiring- there are xnany . 
i. such passages in this book vv'hich is 

a good pioneer in a Pi-^lm ot 

i^hQiig-ht that is still virgin. 
t One misses' very" mr?ch t^e e^J- \ 

ceedingly useful index whicii 2,£ ] 
^ essential in a book of this kind. i 

J„ J. V-«I3U 



n( 



A DEFENCE OF WAR 



Soldier's^ Testament. Selected maxims of 
Rene Quinton. Translated, with an 
Introduction, by Douglas Jerrold. 
(Eyre and Spottiswoode. 5s. net.) 
Rene Quinton, who died in 1925, was a 
French biologist who took a distinguished 
part in the War. When war broke out he 
was already in his forty-eighth j^ear ; and 
though an officer of the reserve, no longer 
liable for active service, he volunteered and 
served continuously with the artiller3\ He 
was wounded eight times, received high Bel- 
gian, British and American decorations, as 
well as the French Croix de Guerre, and was 
appointed successively OtBcer and Com- 
mander of the Legion of Honour. After the 
War Quinton returned to his scientific Avork, 
and only in 1924 began to put together the 
maxims which are now published. He did 
not live to see the publication of the French 
edition. 

Mr. Douglas Jerrold, whose introduction 
occupies a third of the present volume, has 
rearranged the maxims and has thought it 
necessary to present them as a coherent 
philosophy of war. Maxims are a very elusive 
type of literature, and the maxim- writer is 
always more concerned for the truth of each 
particular observation than for their con- 
sistency one with another. Many of these 
maxims are direct observations from experi- 
ence and strike one immediately as acute. The 
distinction between bravery and heroism, for 

(example : " The brave man gives his life 
when it is asked of him ; the hero offers it." 
" The hero is a mystic and peihaps it takes 
j%a hero to understand him." " Courage comes 
■ from the exact computation of probabilities." 
' " Bravery is an inteliectujal rather than a 
moral quality." " There is no discipline in 
the firing line ; there is mutual consent. 
Discipline begins behind the line." In such 
maxims the soldier is sj^eaking ; but in the 
majority of them it is an elderly biokjgist 
Mr. Jerrold says : — 

The keystone of Quinton's thesis is the doctri)io 
that the end of Hfe, for the male, is something 
beyond hfe, and that until this instinct to serve 
the race, or, more widely, the universal purpose 
behind life, is dominant, man is not truly mascu- 
line, not truly mature. Pacifism and malthusianism 
alike are regarded as definitely \mnatural, an 
attempt to defy, Avith results ultimately disastrous, 
the fundamental biological instincts of the female 
and the male. ^ 

and again : — | . 

^ An idea for which a man is not prepared to die 
lis not an idea sufficiently dynamic to stimulate the 
I instinct to serve ; and it is on the stimulation of 
Ithis instinct, on its predominance over all else 
Ithat, as a matter of mere biological necessity, the 
health of the race depends. For it is only in 
serving that the male can attain moral dignity, 
without which the race must deteriorate and ulti- 
mately decay. 



This doctrine is based on a "fallacy common 
to the romantic biologist of the la^st century. 
We might describe it as an aspect of the 
pathetic fallacy ; it is the personification of a 
force which .the biologist calls Nature. " It 
is the intention of Nature," reads Quinton's 
first maxim, " that man should die in his 
prime." " Nature creates species, she does 
not create individuals," runs the second. And 
so on, throughout the whole book, we have 
this unconscious assumption ; and if the 
reader does not care to accept it, the pliilo- 
sophy of war based on it falls to the ground. 

There are two schools of thought among the 
opponents of war. One is humanitarian, 
maintaining the dignity and sanctity of life, 
regarding war as a barbaric survival ; the 
object of life, one must suppose, is more life, 
and a better life. These are tlie pacifists 
proper ; and theii' doctrine rests on practically 
the same assumption as Rene Quinton's — o. 
conception of man as part of a purposive life- 
force. Another doctrine, which Mr. Jerrold 
confuses with this, has no such sentimental 
bias. Life may be purposive or not ; it is 
beside the point. But life cannot be reduced 
to a single concept. There are different kinds 
of life — mineral, vegetable, animal and 
human. Human life is distinguished by the 
possession of unique faculties which we 
commonly call reason. Reason involves 
a difference not of degree only but of 
kind ; so that no proposition that is 
true for the life of instinct is necessarily 
true for the life of i-eason. But reason, not 
being prejudiced, can admit the insecurity of 
its tenure; it is at the mercy of the ineradic- 
able passions which we inherit with our 
animal frame. It must therefore defend itself, 
and in that defence it must be willing to 
sacrifice life. The rational opponent of war, 
it follows, is not a pacifist, for he believes that 
there are ideals for which in the last resort 
he must wage war. He will even fight against 
his own instincts, above all against the 
instinct to fight. He knows that that instinct 
is a mark of decadence, for wars mean 
economic waste, racial debility and intellec- 
tual poverty. Mr. Jerrold seems to accept 
Spengler's theory of history, and no doubt 
some such fatalism is necessary if you are to 
justify war. But it would be possible to hold 
that civilizations perished from too much war 
rather than from too much reason; and a 
modern philosopher of reason, George ISanta- 
yana, in the course of a passage in his book 
" Reason in Society," a passage that supplies 
the complete answer to the advocates of war, 
remarks : — 

Internecine war, foreign and civil, brouglit about 
the greatest setback which the life of reason has 
ever suffered; it exterminated the Greek and Italian 
aristocracies. Instead of being descended from 
heroes, modern nations are descended from slaves; 
and it is not their bodies only that show it. After 
a long peace, if the conditions of life are propitious, 
we observe a people's energies bursting their 
barriers; tlley become aggressive on the strength 
they have stored up in their remote and luichecked 




1^- 



development. It is the unmutilated race, fresh 
from the struggle with nature (in which the best 
survive, while in war it is often the bsst that 
perish), that descends victoriously into the arena 
of nations and conquers disciplined armies at the 
first blow, becomes the military aristocracy of the 
next epoch and is itself ultimately sapped and 
decimated ^y hixury and battle, and merged at 

last into the ignoble conglomerate beneath. Then, 
perhaps, in some other virgin country a genuine 
humanity is again found, capable of victory 
because unbled by war. To call war the soil of 
courage and virtue is like calling debauchery the 
soil of love. 

This conception of war is true to the recorded 
historical facts and not dependent of any 
fanciful apotheosis of the life-force. It also 

(emphasizes the fact that it is not necessary 
to be military to be masculine. All the virtues 
^that are necessary for the preservation of a 
■civilization can be secured by self-denial and 
lasceticism, and by the struggle to dominate 
i those'forms of life which are less than rational. 
' The life of reason is itself a sufficient safe- 
guard against decadence. 

Another curious confusion arises out of Mr. 
Jerrold's misunderstanding of the rational- 
ist's j30sition. He says, in effect, that the 
rationalist cannot believe in any absolute 
values because the only effective way of 
believing in such values is to establish them 
by force. The rationalist may well believe 
in such values and agree that such a belief 
energizes States, races and institutions. But 

IW'here he cannot follow Mr. Jerrold is in 
believing that absolute values are the prero- 
gative of any one race. If the word 
" absolute " has any meaning in conjunction 
with value, it implies a quality that is univer- 
sal. It is irrational, therefore, that nation 
should fight against nation for the establish- 
ment of univeisal values. They should rather 
cooperate to determine these values and seek 
together to establish them. The only reason- 
able w-ars are crusades. 

It is all the more curious that this book 
should defend war because both the author 
and his introducer are evidently Roman 
Catholics, and their advocacy of international 
wars would naturally seem to conflict with a 
belief in one universal Church. When we read 
a maxim like " Pacifism is the brother of 
Malthusianism " we begin to discern the 
obscure workings of this logic. War is inevit 
able because it is the Catholic's only alterna- 
tive to birth control. That, at any rate, is 
the practical side of the doctrine. That it has 
a more mystical side is evident from some of 
the maxims already quoted, and the final 
maxim in the book, inspired by " The Imita- 
tion oi Christ," expresses perfectly that gloomy 
fatalism whicli has often been the refuge of 
the purgatorial conscience: — 

There is no satisfaction of the soul save in mis- 
fortune. It is not enough to accept suffering, yovi 
must love it. If the gods have given you a soul, 
you will only be able to employ it apart from the 
. world, and sorrow is '«he way of solitude. Shun 



those hearts which understand you, for they will 
enchain you; bless those who reject you and those 
by whom you arc forgotten. 

In such gloomy antagonism is this defence 
of war grounded. Christianity and leason, 
however, teach us to seek a life of felicity 
and peace. 



I /3 




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